Injuries at work rise 15 per cent

first_img Previous Article Next Article Related posts:No related photos. Numbers of local authority are dropping and this means work for OH nursesThe health and safety of millions of workers around the country is being putat risk because of a big reduction in local authority inspectors, the TUC hassaid. And picking up the pieces of such cuts will, in part, inevitably fall onoccupational health nurses, both in primary care and those working in industry,the unions’ body has warned. Over the past four years the number of local authority inspectors has fallenby 360, or 24 per cent, while injuries in the service sector – the area thatcouncils are responsible for – have risen by 4,112, or 15 per cent, the TUCsaid. An increasing number of service sector injuries are being reported inleisure centres, banks, shops, call centres, care homes and hairdressingsalons, which have seen injuries rise from 26,709 in 1996/97 to 30,821 in1998/99. The increase comes at a time when injury rates have been falling across theeconomy as a whole, argued the TUC. In 1998/99, the last year figures were available, 10 workers were killed inthe service sector, with a further 30,000 suffering serious injury, includingbroken limbs, amputation and loss of sight, the survey found. Scotland had seen the greatest drop in the number of council inspectors, itadded. Owen Tudor, the TUC’s senior policy officer working with prevention,rehabilitation and compensation, said, when fewer inspectors are available, aworkforce often depended more on OH nurses. “But they are not an alternative – and bluntly, there are not enough ofeither,” he added. While there would be an impact on OH nurses working in industry,particularly in sectors with larger employers such as banking, the main onuswould fall on OH nurses in the primary care setting. “People getting injured, where there is not an OH nurse on site, willhave to go off to their GP, which will mean an increase in workload for OHnurses in primary care,” he said. www.tuc.org.uk Comments are closed. Injuries at work rise 15 per centOn 1 Feb 2001 in Personnel Todaylast_img read more

Gatwick shares out onsite benefits to staff

first_img Previous Article Next Article Staff working for any of the 300 companies based at Gatwick airport couldsoon have access to all benefits on offer from other businesses based on-site. The airport’s operator BAA, wants to create an employment hub to encouragestaff to move jobs between employers based at Gatwick, rather than leaving theairport altogether. Under the shared benefits scheme staff would be rewarded with items such asflights, meals and discounts from all of the companies, instead of just theirown individual employer. Cathy Wilcher, BAA HR director at Gatwick, said she wants to stop internalcompetition for staff and build a community of employers within the airport.”It needs to become an employment hub so people in the local communitywant to work here instead of travelling to London,” she said. BAA is also trying to centralise job advertising by all employers based atthe airport on to a single website to help build the community. The idea stems from workshops held at the cross-sector Employment Forum,which was set up to look at challenges facing the airport’s expanding labourmarket. The last forum, which included economic advisers from local businesses andrepresentatives from the council, met in July and agreed to reconvene inOctober to consider the proposals further. With £16bn earmarked for the expansion of Gatwick over the next 12 yearsWilcher is confident the shared benefits scheme will help build and retain the28,000-strong workforce. “We need to encourage employers to buy into this but it will require alot of work over the next two years,” she said. www.gatwork.co.uk Gatwick shares out onsite benefits to staffOn 10 Sep 2002 in Personnel Today Comments are closed. Related posts:No related photos.last_img read more

A natural meeting place?

first_imgA natural meeting place?On 1 Jul 2003 in Personnel Today Previous Article Next Article In an innovative approach to providing OH services from primary care, a GPpartnership has shown how occupational health care can work within a generalpractice setting, by Helen Clinkard & James Heffer When the NHS was founded, occupational health was not included. Fifty yearson, the question of who provides occupational health and how it is provided isstill being asked. With the restructuring of major manufacturing industries, many OH doctorsand nurses have gone and OH provision is being provided on a contracted-outbasis. Provision by the private sector has ongoing problems linking with otherhealthcare professionals and tends to be driven by health surveillance needs. As far as we know, there is no comparative data comparing differentarrangements of OH provision in terms of outcomes, cost or quality of service.However, we offer an overview of one arrangement that we believe may haveseveral advantages over conventional arrangements for both user and provider. Most employees with occupational health problems, ‘usually first consulttheir general practitioner’.1 It would therefore seem reasonable to develop anOH system that had strong links with, or was based in, primary care. This positioning of the service would also reflect the current drive to makeOH care more accessible to employees, which is at the core of the Government’spolicy for occupational health, Securing Health Together.2 History of the practice and service The Bradford-on-Avon Health Centre practice has been involved inoccupational health work for several decades. This initially took the form of an appointment of a factory doctor to alocal company. About five years ago, it became clear to the practice that companies wouldrequire a higher degree of skill and professionalism from their OH providers,not least because of the increasing legislative load, particularly from EUdirectives being absorbed into UK practice. It was also clear that occupational health remains very much a a nurse-ledprofession and the practice wished to reflect these developments in the serviceit was providing. As a consequence, the decision was made to fundamentally change the patternof working. Two GPs obtained the Diploma in Occupational Medicine and thepractice recruited a part-time occupational health nurse (OHN). The practice initially used the nurse to enhance the service it alreadyoffered to one local company. It soon became clear that this arrangementresulted in a better service for the company. This was borne out by the companysecretary, who said: “Occupational health has become a proactive service,working with management to identify problems, helping the employee and thus thecompany; a win-win situation for us.” The service became more accessible to the workforce, there was atransformation in the standard of record keeping and, from the company’sviewpoint, the management of absence improved, with a 30 per cent reduction intotal absence over two years and a saving in sick-pay costs in excess of£100,000 per annum. The improvement in performance was so marked that it encouraged the practiceto offer the service to other local companies. The organisation has since grownsteadily, recruiting staff to match the expanding client list. The current service The current client list covers a wide spectrum of employees, includingmanufacturing, the service sector and the public sector. It includes somehousehold names as well as small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). All theorganisations served are close to the practice, being in or around westWiltshire. The organisation offers a service menu to clients. This can range from anin-house OH nursing service, with direct access to physiotherapy andcounselling, to individual items of service more suited to the requirements ofSMEs. Collectively, the clients cover an employee population of about 4,000. Quality standards The organisation is part of the NHS Plus scheme, which encourages NHSoccupational health teams to provide services to the private sector,particularly SMEs. The organisation is also part of an offshoot pilot schemeevaluating the potential contribution of general practice to NHS Plus and to OHin general. We hope to be one of the first organisations to have our standardsof service audited as part of this pilot. Perceived advantages The advantages of delivering OH care in this way stems from possessingdetailed knowledge of the local health economy, its general practitioners,primary care teams, hospitals and consultants. Excellent relationships withlocal healthcare professionals including nurses, physiotherapists andpsychologists can be built. Being part of the local NHS means that long waitingtimes for operations or investigations are known to us and companies can beadvised accordingly. The organisation has extensive knowledge of local, privatehealthcare providers, their costs, services and standards. In promoting the practice’s local knowledge in support of the OH work,ethical matters relating to overlap between employees and practice patientsmust also be taken into account. The team is punctilious in explaining to any employee the distinctivecharacteristics of the OH role, and, in particular, that the OH physician isnot the patient’s advocate in the way that a GP may be perceived. This dealswith the vast majority of potential problems. The backing of a group general practice means that on the rare occasion thatan ethical problem cannot be resolved in this way, the patient can be referredto another GP within the practice. All OH documentation is kept completelyseparate from any other medical records in the surgery premises. Working as an OHN within the setting of general practice is exciting andchallenging. It includes the whole spectrum of OH, from risk assessment andhealth surveillance to sickness absence management in a variety of differentsettings and different cultures. There are currently three OHNs on the team; one has the OH certificate,another is starting her OH diploma in September and the third is workingtowards a BSc (Hons) to become an occupational health nursing specialistpractitioner. The practice is currently recruiting for more staff and is offering OHtraining as part of its employment package. The senior adviser role is changingto become more focused on management and having greater involvement in policymaking, procedures and training; for example, in training employees in healthsurveillance, such as skin surveillance programmes and health promotion. There is the opportunity to work in varied environments. These include therubber industry, which has an ageing workforce, where the employees have workedin the industry for most of their lives. In contrast, there is a companyrunning a call centre that has a very young workforce and a high turnover ofstaff. These are examples of a wide variety of work-related experiences that givean all-round knowledge of the working environment in different cultures, ratherthan being isolated in one OH nursing speciality. One of the advantages of working for a general practice is having thesupport of the whole primary healthcare team. The doctors are very supportive,and work alongside the OHNs, helping the whole team in a proactive manner.Nobody feels isolated. Good practice is shared and team working encouraged. Working in a primary care setting also enables staff to think beyond justthe client’s workplace. For example, when planning a health promotion campaign,the local target areas can be identified through consultation with otherhealthcare professionals within the team. This broadens the OHN’s knowledge. The doctors in the practice have a good working relationship with othergeneral practices in the area and this can be very handy for getting lettersback from the employee’s GP sooner rather then later. It also opens up achannel between the local general practices and local industry. The practice is now planning open lunchtime sessions for healthcareprofessionals at the companies to whom it provides OH services. These willenable local GPs to meet the organisations their patients work for, thus improvingthe understanding of local industry and the risks to which employees areexposed. It will also act as a forum where issues such as rehabilitation andthe use of medical certification for workplace absence can be discussed. Our OH team sees the involvement of local general practices as crucial indeveloping future OH provision nationally and is keen to look at different waysin which practices might be involved. The disadvantages have been few, but mainly related to communication – thefact staff are working out in the community and not based at the surgerypremises. However, the OH team now has regular meetings at the practice. Thishelps encourage communication between practice staff and OHNs. The practice feels privileged to have been at the start of this new andexciting project. Occupational health certainly sits very well within generalpractice and it has enabled the OH team to use all its skills to provide afirst-class service for employees in west Wiltshire. Conclusion We consider that Bradford-on-Avon Health Centre has created a viable modelfor basing occupational health care within a general practice setting. Thiscould form the basis of a long-term strategy for reaching out to industrylocally and to SMEs in particular. It offers exciting employment prospects forOHNs, making them part of the primary care team and offering them a variety ofworkplace settings. The new general practice contract, if approved, may give added impetus tothis arrangement of providing OH care, by permitting financial support topractices offering this service. We hope other OHNs and GPs will be encouragedto explore the possibilities presented by this model. References: 1. Snashall, D (ed), Hazards of Work, The ABC of Work Related Disorders, BMJpublishing, 1997 2. Health and Safety Executive, Securing Health Together, 2000 Helen Clinkard is the senior occupational health adviser to Bradford-on-AvonHealth Centre Occupational HealthServices. James Heffer is the lead GP foroccupational health at the practice.Bradford-On-Avon Health Centre,StationApproach, Bradford-on-Avon, Wiltshire, BA15 1DQ, tel: 01225 866611 Related posts:No related photos. Comments are closed. last_img read more

Skills strategy must be translated into practice

first_img Comments are closed. Skills strategy must be translated into practiceOn 22 Jul 2003 in Personnel Today Employers have welcomed government moves to address serious skillsshortages. But they want the proposals to be rapidly turned into solutions, tohelp boost the UK’s levels of productivity and competitiveness. Michael MillarreportsProposals outlined in the Government’s Skills Strategy White Paper, designedto equip the UK’s workforce with the right skills and boost competitiveness,have received conditional backing from employers. The paper, 21st Century Skills: Realising Our Potential – Individuals,Employers, Nation, forms part of the Government’s attempt to combat skillsshortages and increase productivity levels to help it match major competitors. To date, productivity under Labour has actually dropped. In 2001, output perhour worked was 25 per cent higher in Germany than in the UK, and 26 and 32 percent higher in the US and France respectively. Employer involvement An estimated 7.3 million adults in the UK – 30 per cent of the workingpopulation – do not have a Level two (equivalent to five GCSEs) or a comparablequalification. Almost half the unemployed people in Britain lack any formal qualificationsat all. To try and address these problems, Education minister Ivan Lewis, outlined araft of proposals earlier this month to improve skills. These include plans toensure greater employer involvement in the design and delivery of Modern Apprenticeships,and to lift the age cap so people aged over 25 can learn skilled trades. He also revealed a proposal to improve and expand the basic skills campaignto make Information Communication Technology (ICT) the third essential ‘skillfor life’ alongside numeracy and literacy. The Government wants to improveopportunities for adults to gain qualifications in technician, higher craft andtrade skills where regional or sector skills shortages exist. Another proposal is to boost adult learning by providing £30 weekly grantsfor those studying full-time in further education. The Skills Strategy willalso attempt to reform adult education and careers information services andmake educational qualifications more employer-friendly and relevant. Underpinning the proposals is the Government’s intention to rapidly expandthe network of Skills Sector Councils (SSC), designed to help employers inassociated industries address skills shortages in a holistic and co-ordinatedmanner. Karen Price, CEO of e-skills UK, the SSC set up to help employers in ICTaddress skills shortages, welcomed the Government’s plan to put increasedemphasis on ICT education. She claims IT is the literacy of the 21st century,but that the UK is not exploiting new technology due to shortages in the skillsbase. Price believes providing people with IT skills will also help their literacyand numeracy, with individuals learning basic skills online if “it meansthey can save their pride by saying they are on an IT course rather than areading course”. Furthermore, she advocates the use of ‘e-skills passports’, which allowindividuals to assess the skills they have or need against profiles for jobs,which are preset by employers. The importance of improved ICT skills was also underlined by BarbaraGreenway, managing director of Parity Training, the UK’s second-largestsupplier of IT training. She said providing additional ICT training wasimperative if employability was to be maintained in Britain and that thetop-down focus from the Government on the issue would make supplying facilitiesand accessibility much easier. Adult apprentices The Government’s plan to lift the age cap for Modern Apprenticeships (MAs)so people over 25 can learn skilled trades has been greeted with enthusiasm,particularly among the beleaguered manufacturing industry. Sean McIlveen, executive director of employee affairs at car manufacturerFord, said this would allow continual professional progress in the sector andprovide ‘development for all’. Ford has taken on adult apprentices for the past10 years and has seen substantial benefits. The director of learning and development at Rolls-Royce, Margaret Gildear,highlighted the importance of SEMTA – the SSC covering science, engineering andmanufacturing technologies – in providing guidance for smaller companies whichlack the strong leadership necessary to make the most of the opportunitiesoffered by MAs. Mike Sanderson, CEO at SEMTA, agrees removing the age limit offers a realopportunity to upskill and reskill staff. However, he expressed doubts aboutthe importance the Government would place on the development of MAs in thefuture. “The plan is resource-constrained and I believe Charles Clarke’spolitical survival lies in more traditional education,” he said. The Government’s pledge to make qualifications more employer-friendly andresponsive to business needs is long overdue says Victoria Gill, skills adviserat the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. This will be achievedthrough an increased emphasis on vocational qualifications, and by helpingemployers package units of training to form the training programme that bestmeets their needs. “This plan will enhance the motivation to learn and for employers toimprove their workforce,” she said. McIlveen is optimistic that the skills strategy will help increasevocational education’s standing. “We seem to struggle in the UK to seevocational qualifications in as good a light as academic qualifications,”he said. Employers were united in praising the Government for instigating a positiveset of measures to combat the problem. However, they stress the onus is now onthe Government to ensure its skills strategy is translated from a document ofproposals into pragmatic and workable solutions that equip the workforce withthe skills businesses need. Key reformsDelivering the right skills for individuals– Introducing free learning to any adult without a goodfoundation of skills for employability, to help them achieve a full Level twoqualification (five GCSEs or equivalent)– New opportunities for adults to gain qualifications intechnician, higher craft and trade skills through a Level three qualification(two A-levels or equivalent) in regional or sector skills shortage areas– Funding a new £30 weekly grant for adult learners in prioritygroups to support them in studying full-time courses in further education– Expanding the Adult Basic Skills campaign to make informationand communications technology the third essential ‘skill for life’ alongside numeracyand literacy– Lifting the age cap for Modern Apprenticeships so that peopleover 25 can learn skilled trades– Reforming adult information, advice and guidance services tohelp adults into learning, and ensure individuals can find out what to learn,where to learn and what they are entitled toDelivering the right skills for employers– Rapidly expanding the Sector Skills Council (SSC) network toidentify, map and meet key skills needs in employment sectors. The Departmentof Trade and Industry and the Department for Education and Skills will team upto help drive the SSCs– Learning from employer training pilots as a basis fordeveloping a national programme for employers to deliver training in the waythey want it, particularly for low-skilled employees– Reforming qualifications to make them more employer-friendlyand responsive to employer needs, by helping employers to package trainingunits in different areas to form the training programme that best fits theirneeds– Ensuring greater employer involvement in the design anddelivery of Modern Apprenticeships– Developing business support services so employers know who toturn to for help on skills– Publishing an employers’ guide to good training practice, bringing togetherclear information on everything employers need to know to improve the skills oftheir workforce– Introducing a new people management and leadership drive,working with Investors in People Related posts:No related photos. 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Top job: Louise Smalley, director of HR, David Lloyd Leisure

first_imgTop job: Louise Smalley, director of HR, David Lloyd LeisureOn 16 Sep 2003 in Personnel Today Previous Article Next Article LouiseSmalley has moved to the Whitbread-owned David Lloyd Leisure from within thegroup, where she was previously reward director for the restaurants division.  She will be responsible for all HR activityat the company, which operates 55 health clubs in the UK.Whatwill be the duties in your new role?Ensuringwe have a great place to work for our 4,500 team members, and that we are allequipped with the right skills to meet the needs of our members.Whatdo you hope to achieve in your new role?Westrive to help members to get more out of life through David Lloyd Leisuremembership. I hope to achieve the same for our staff.Whichaspects are you most looking forward to?Growingthe fantastic wealth of talent we already have in our clubs and support office,and making good use of the extensive facilities at our clubs.What’sthe best thing about HR?Coachingpeople to achieve their full potential, and witnessing the results.Andthe worst?Thatthere aren’t enough hours in the day.Whatis the strangest situation you have been in at work?Itwas since joining David Lloyd Leisure. I took part in a charity triathlon eventwith the rest of the board, which started with swimming in the Serpentine at7am. It was a great bonding event, and very motivational, but rather surrealand definitely a little murky at times.Howdo you think the role of HR will change over the next five years?Wewill all need to become world-class change agents with a clear focus on how wecan contribute to the goals of the business.Whois the ultimate guru?I’ma huge fan of Dave Ulrich.Whatis your essential viewing?I’mmad about sport, and, I’m ashamed to admit, Gardeners’ World has to be up theretoo.Whatis the greatest risk you have ever taken?White-waterrafting down the Zambezi river.Whatadvice would you give to people starting out in HR?Setyour priorities where you can really add value to the business.Ifyou could do any job in the world, what would it be?Ifnot mine, then I’d love to be a member of the UK Olympic bid in London team.Smalley’sCV2003Director of HR, David Lloyd Leisure2003Reward director, Whitbread Restaurants2002HR director, Beefeater Restaurants1999HR development manager, The Pelican group1996HR operations manager, Pizza Hut UK Comments are closed. Related posts:No related photos.last_img read more

Talent and Social Business: The promise and the challenges of Employer Branding

first_img Previous Article Next Article Related posts:No related photos. “As some of you know I joined Flipkart with the designation of Director – Talent Branding. Many people after that have asked me what exactly is my role and what would I be doing.”Read full article Talent and Social Business: The promise and the challenges of Employer BrandingShared from missc on 15 Apr 2015 in Personnel Today Comments are closed.last_img

Comment on Why great recruiters make dud managers by Greg Savage

first_imgRelated posts:No related photos. Previous Article Next Article Comments are closed. Comment on Why great recruiters make dud managers by Greg SavageShared from Greg Savage on 27 Nov 2015 in Personnel Today The answer to the question is “yes” sure, if they have the attributes of a leader. And spend 80% of their time on three things 1) selling 2) coaching 3) Performance ManagementRead full article last_img

Forbes launches worldwide luxury listings platform

first_imgBonnie Stone Sellers and Jeff Hyland with the platform (Linkedin, Getty, Forbes, iStock)Forbes is launching a worldwide high-end home listings platform that won’t charge a commission but whose members will pay annual dues.Forbes Global Properties will list only homes above $2 million, according to Yahoo Finance. The venture could be described as a high-end Zillow or Redfin.Jeff Hyland, who co-founded Beverly Hills-based luxury brokerage Hilton & Hyland; and Bonnie Stone Sellers, former CEO of Christie’s International Real Estate, will lead the new platform. She will have the title of chairperson.Forbes said the platform will capitalize on its built-in audience of readers “to connect, inform, and inspire high-net-worth potential homebuyers and sellers about the finest properties for sale around the world,” according to its news release.Forbes calls the platform an “invitation only network” for agents “to collaborate and transact without the imposition of referral fees.The platform charges no commission, but members will pay annual dues. While it is described as an invitation-only service, nonmember agents can also pay to list properties.The venture has member brokerages in 75 countries, according to Yahoo Finance. Hyland told the Los Angeles Times that he expects “to have no more than 100 independent offices” globally with listings on the platform.As of Monday morning, there were 724 homes listed on the platform. About half are in the U.S. and half are elsewhere around the world, according to Hyland. Forbes said that 200 homes are listed for more than $10 million. [YF, LAT] — Dennis Lynch Share on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on LinkedinShare via Email Share via Shortlink Share via Shortlinkcenter_img TagsHilton & HylandJeff HylandLuxury Real Estatelast_img read more

Editor’s note: Miami mania

first_imgShare on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on LinkedinShare via Email Share via Shortlink Share via Shortlink Tagseditor’s notecenter_img Stuart ElliottIt seems like the whole world is heading south for the winter — and staying there. Since the pandemic hit, South Florida — despite seeing an enormous number of Covid cases — has benefited with rarely a day going by without news of a mammoth luxury sale or prominent company relocating some of their employees from elsewhere in the country. In our cover story this month, we explore an idea that has gained currency in recent weeks as Miami’s fortunes have surged: Can the city capitalize on its growth to eventually become a tech hub? Maybe even the next Silicon Valley? ADVERTISEMENT Prompted by Miami Mayor Francis Suarez, a real estate attorney who took office in 2017, the idea went viral last month. As reporter Katherine Kallergis writes, a principal at venture capital firm Founders Fund threw out a proposal in early December to move Silicon Valley to Miami. Suarez quote-tweeted the investor, asking, “How can I help?” The response went viral with more than 2 million impressions and thousands of likes. The mayor compared it to “catching lightning in a bottle.” More importantly, “Suarez was suddenly in conversation with major venture capitalists and tech executives from around the country, grateful for a friendly ear in what has become a political climate openly hostile to Big Tech,” Kallergis writes. While some are optimistic, others see it as unlikely, labeling it “the latest real estate hustle” in Miami. We explore the idea — and what’s next for Miami’s real estate market overall — in our story. In another big piece, we dive into the fallout in the country’s multifamily market amid the pandemic. While office landlords have taken a huge hit, hotels have been slammed, and the already suffering retail sector has faced even bigger challenges, the market for rental buildings has performed better than expected. The number of people paying their rent mostly has held up, and there have been fewer distressed properties as a result. But the real pain could still be ahead, hitting in the next six months to a year. Meanwhile, it’s no secret that 2020 was (somehow) a good year for the stock market, despite steep job losses and widespread economic pain. It was also the biggest year for IPOs since 2007, and instant-homebuying startup Opendoor and home-services software company Porch.com were among the companies that debuted. Both went public in December and saw their valuations climb to $18 billion and $1 billion, respectively. Next up is the long-awaited IPO of residential brokerage Compass. As with any startup, the earliest backers could reap the biggest rewards. Reporter E.B. Solomont breaks down who invested and who is best poised for a windfall. We also look at the biggest winners from Opendoor’s IPO, including its CEO Eric Wu, who’s now a billionaire. Elsewhere in the issue, we look at the real estate reaction to the violence at the Capitol earlier this month. The fallout for the Trump Organization has been severe, and those in the industry are among those turning away: Cushman & Wakefield has quit leasing duties at Trump properties, and JLL backed off its assignment to sell the Trump hotel in D.C. At the same time, some real estate agents’ use of social media app Parler had sparked concerns early this month, though the app has recently been cut off by Big Tech.Finally, don’t miss our investigative piece looking at the implosion of crowdfunding firm Prodigy Network, where investors poured in a staggering $690 million. And check out our sit-down Closing interview with Ray McGuire, the New York City mayoral hopeful who has some of the biggest business backers on his side. Enjoy the issue.last_img read more

The rapid fading of radio waves reflected from sporadic-E ionization

first_imgA digital ionosonde has been used at Halley (75°31′S, 26°59′W) to examine the fading on time scales of a few seconds of 4.5 MHz signals reflected from sporadic-E ionization. Fourier analysis of the phase and amplitude of the signals is used to show that the fading arises from the interference of returns from discrete echoes. The locations of these echoes are derived from phase measurements at pairs of antennae separated in North-South and East-West directions together with information on group ranges.last_img read more