This MFLN-Military Caregiving concentration blog post was published on December 30, 2016. What training are you requiring pediatricians providing services at military medical facilities to have in terms of understanding ABA and the challenges of the referral system? What happens when children who are no longer eligible for EFMP due to divorce/custody change, but they are still enrolled in ECHO? Earlier this month our MFLN Military Caregiving concentration team hosted speakers from the Defense Health Agency (DHA) who provided an overview of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), in addition to advice for service providers and military families on how best to assist beneficiaries under the Autism Care Demonstration (ACD).Throughout the interactive webinar, presenters answered many questions from our participants concerning TRICARE® Autism Care Demonstration and ABA. These questions, and the responses to them, can be found in our printable Question and Response sheet on the event page.Below are a few of the questions from the TRICARE® Autism Care Demonstration webinar:How would an ECHO Case Manager assist families regarding the 28-day access standard when clients are unable to meet until after-school hours? We would like to wish you a Happy New Year! We hope that 2017 is filled with the promises of a brighter tomorrow.
Need to point out a specific part of your image with custom callout graphics? Check out these step-by-step instructions for your next project.In this tutorial, we’re going to create a callout graphic to help illustrate the height of one of the towers of the famous Notre Dame cathedral in Paris. First, we’ll set up the four main visual elements of the graphic: a circle, a path, text, and a basic background for the text. Then we’ll bring the graphic to life via keyframing and tracking. Let’s get started. CreateFirst, for the circle, I’ll create a small ellipse using the Ellipse shape tool. Holding the Shift key will constrain the proportions. Next, I’ll add text reading 227ft, and then use the Rectangle shape tool to create a simple white rectangle background for the text. I’ll grab both the text and rectangle and perfectly place them using the Align panel. Once in place, I’ll parent the rectangle to the text layer to make sure that the background follows. For the path, I’ll go to Layer > New > Solid and then add the Beam effect via Effect > Generate > Beam. The Beam effect gives me tight control over the start and end points of a path, which is the real key to making a good callout graphic work. For the attributes, I’ll set Length to 100%, change both the Inside and Outside colors to white, and put the softness at 0. Now I’m ready to connect these elements.ConnectTo make the callout animation work effectively, I need to connect the elements in a specific order. I want one end of the path to attach to the circle element and the other end to attach to the text. This is quite easy, as the Beam effect has keyframable start and end points. I’ll use the starting point for the circle and the ending point for the text. To view the Beam effect on the timeline I’ll first select my path layer and press keyboard shortcut E. Next, I’ll grab both the text and circle layers and press P to bring up Position. To connect these attributes, you can simply use the property pick whip of the start/end point of the Beam effect. If you’re using an older version of AE, you’ll need to first add an expression by Alt-clicking the stopwatch icon next to the attribute to view the property pick whip. Finally, I’ll connect the start point of the Beam effect to the circle’s position attribute, and the endpoint to the text’s position attribute. Now when I move either text or the circle layer, the path will follow. With everything connected, this graphic is ready for animation.AnimateThe first element to animate is the circle, so I’ll start there. For the circle, it’s as easy as animating the scale from 0. To create a small blip effect, I can duplicate the circle element within the shape layer and then change the scale and opacity to create a small radar-style look. For the path, I’ll need to reopen the Beam effect attributes of my path layer. To bring the path to life, keyframe the Time attribute from 0 to 50%. Next, I’ll animate the text background rectangle by keyframing the X scale attribute of the shape element from 0 to 100. Then I’ll duplicate the rectangle, move it just above the text, and change the Track Matte of my text layer to Luma Matte. Now when the background layer animates on, it reveals the text at the same time.TrackMy graphic is now animating on screen, but it’s still lacking something — movement. The callout is referencing the height of the tower of the cathedral, so I want the graphic to point there. Since this is a moving handheld shot, I’ll ideally want the point of the graphic to move along with the camera. I can achieve this via a single-point track. First I’ll select my cathedral video layer and then go to Window > Tracker. I’ll bring my playhead to the beginning and then select Track Motion in the Tracker panel. This will bring me into the Layer panel, where I can track the movement via my track point. After finding a good track point, I’ll go to Edit Target and select the Circle layer. Now I’ll analyze and apply the track. Once applied, tracking keyframes will apply to the Position attribute of the circle layer. For more versatility, I could track the motion to a Null layer instead.Voilà! I now have a functional callout graphic.Interested in the tracks we used to create this video?“Start Living” by Vincent Tone“Soul Summer Vibe” by Mattijs Muller“Pathfinder” by Tonemassif“Edge” by One Wave“Dissonance” by Tonemassif“Bach – Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G (1st Movement)” by Wilfred Symphony OrchestraLooking for more After Effects tutorials? Check these out.Video Tutorial: How to Create Anime Speed Lines in After EffectsVideo Tutorial: How to Fine-Tune Keyframes in Adobe After EffectsVideo Tutorial: How to Morph Graphics Using Adobe After EffectsHow to Create an Animated Circle Burst in Adobe After EffectsVideo Tutorial: Create an Action Promo With After Effects
Adobe After EffectsAdobe After Effects is a digital motion graphics platform used to create either simple animations or intricate graphics sequences. If you ever hear of a “motion graphics expert,” chances are they’re proficient in After Effects. The program adds motion to layers and assets that you couldn’t do in Premiere. Its motion tools are much better than Premiere’s, and it’s the preferred tool for adding motion to videos, images, and designs. It’s a “hard to learn, easy to master” type of program, but once you get the hang of it, it’s essential for creating motion graphics or visual effects for your projects.Tasks for After Effects:Creating motion graphics packages for your projects.Adding motion blur and movement to assets and layers.Manipulating multilayer sequences that require detailed keyframing.Creating title sequences that include keyframe-based animations. After Effects Vs. Premiere Pro: What’s the Difference?To sum it all up, Premiere assembles all of your assets and creates a final video product, while After Effects is mainly an asset-generation tool. People complete projects in After Effects all the time, though — it’s great for creating motion-based social video with only a song bed underneath, or even creating a full animation.So really, there’s no true “vs.” in this argument. It’s kind of like debating PowerPoint and Word — you use them for different tasks, even though they share some similar functions. They are extremely well linked, though — and like many editors, I use them concurrently all of the time. Once you get familiar with both programs, you’ll learn how to dynamically link After Effects compositions to your Premiere projects so you can access both assets at the same time. (For more information about dynamic linking, check out the video by Justin Odisho above.)Looking for more on Premiere and After Effects? Check these out.7 Basic After Effects Skills Every Editor Should Know The Secret to Working with Motion Blur in Adobe Premiere ProVideo Editing 101: How to Add Titles and Subtitles in Premiere ProHow to Create Text Effects and Animations in Premiere ProLearn to Create Your Own 8-Bit Art in Adobe After Effects After Effects and Premiere Pro are two of Adobe’s flagship post-production apps. But which one do you need for which task? Let’s find out.When you’re creating a new project, knowing when to use Premiere and when to use After Effects can make or break your project. They are both extremely powerful programs, that can sometimes perform the same functions, but most of the time, one of them is better at something than the other.Now the differences between these two programs are pretty apparent to anyone who has used them before. But, if you’re new to the suite, it can be confusing determining which one you need to learn for a given post-production task.Let’s take a look at Adobe’s two main video production software tools and see what they do — and when to use one over the other.Adobe Premiere ProAdobe Premiere Pro is an NLE (nonlinear editor) with the main function of editing video clips together in a sequence. This is the program that most beginners open to create a simple video with multiple clips and music. It’s incredibly scalable — easy to use for beginners, and still powerful enough for a master editor. It’s got just about everything you need to complete a professional video: a clip editor, color correction tools, audio programs, and even graphics software.Tasks for Premiere:Editing a video with existing clips imported from a camera.Editing audio within your video — Premiere’s audio functions far surpass AE’s.Placing transitions between clips within your timeline.Creating/polishing any type of video — short films, music videos, social videos, etc.
Get the Free eBook! Want to master cold calling? Download my free eBook! Many would have you believe that cold calling is dead, but the successful have no fear of the phone; they use it to outproduce their competitors. Download Now Some people live in poverty. Real, physical poverty. They can’t meet life’s basic fundamental needs, like food, water, shelter, and clothing. Too many people are truly impoverished, and they deserve our help.But there is another kind of poverty. This kind of poverty is far more common, far more wide spread, and far more pernicious. It’s a psychological form of poverty. Even though a person suffering from a psychological poverty may have enough food, water, shelter, and clothing, their life isn’t what it might be. They aren’t the very best version of themselves.You can recognize someone suffering from psychological poverty by their scarcity mindset. They believe that there isn’t enough; if someone has more than enough than someone necessarily too little. They don’t believe that the Universe is infinitely abundant or that they can have any more than they have right now. They believe things are hard, and so they are.Another telltale sign of an impoverished personal psychology is the victim mentality. Those who suffer from the victim mindset believe that their lives are ruled by outside forces (they are, but no so much the forces they imagine) and that they are powerless to change their lives. They believe they can’t change because their parents were divorced, the decision-makers in admissions at “the right school” rejected them, the boss passed them over for a promotion, or the wrong political party is conspiring against them.One of the most dangerous varieties of psychological poverty is holding oneself in low regard, or low self-esteem. You can recognize this form of poverty in the words people use when they talk about themselves. They say, “I can’t do that,” or “I’ve never been any good at … ,” or “I’m not good enough.”It’s not easy to help people suffering from a psychological poverty.It’s difficult to convince someone who believes that the Universe is scarcity that it’s really abundance; they struggle to believe that money is abundant because it takes so much work to acquire. It’s difficult to convince someone that there is no outside force in the world that has a greater control over their destiny then what’s inside them (especially what’s inside their mind). It’s not easy to help people that believe that they are unworthy that they are valuable, that most people feel like they are impostors or wearing someone else’s clothes—until they don’t feel that way anymore.It’s sometimes to difficult to help yourself.QuestionsWhat forms of psychological do you recognize as being most common?How do you overcome your (occasional or more than occasional) scarcity mindset?What do you to regain control when you sometimes feel that you are a victim of outside forces?How do you combat the voice of your inner critic? What voice do you replace it with?
A trigger event is some occurrence that has an impact on your dream client’s business in some way that provides you with an opening to start a dialogue, and potentially, create an opportunity.Your dream client hiring a new person in a key role, one that would care deeply about the outcomes you help deliver, would be considered a trigger event. You see these trigger events fly by on LinkedIn every day when you receive notification that some of your contacts are in new roles or new companies.A political, economic, or technological event can also be a trigger event. If you sell microchips or something, some tech company deciding to enter a new market might be a trigger event. A massive change in the economy is always a trigger event, declines causing people to look for ways to cut costs, and great growth causing people to need all of the things that allow them to pursue growth.All of these trigger events are worth paying attention to, and I have seen personnel changes followed by changes in suppliers almost as a matter of course. But all of them entail waiting. And waiting isn’t a good strategy.You, Trigger EventYou are, in fact, the real trigger event. Or you could be.You could have such an incredible ability to create value for your dream clients that meeting with you alone would cause them to rethink some of their business practices and change some of the decisions they are struggling to make. Provided you have the business acumen and situational knowledge. Provided you have the questions. You could be that trigger.You could have such a unique ability to help your dream client with a vision of what is possible that you could in a single conversation put a major crack in the status quo, opening it up to finally being broken and replaced with some better, long overdue future state. You could help a prospective client who doesn’t know he should be dissatisfied realize that he should be.You are the trigger when you know how to share the implications of political, technological, economic, and cultural changes in a way that allows your client to see around corners, avoiding hidden dangers, and taking advantage of new opportunities.Your personal note sent after twelve value-creating touches could be the trigger event that causes your dream client to change. The fact that you are known, that you are known as a value creator, and that you have relentlessly pursued your dream client can trigger a call as soon as your prospective client recognizes that they aren’t happy. That card can trigger a call to explore change.You don’t get paid for waiting. Your dream clients don’t produce better results while they are waiting for you. You produce better results when you stop waiting and decide that you are going to be the trigger event that you and your dream client have both been waiting for. Essential Reading! Get my 3rd book: Eat Their Lunch “The first ever playbook for B2B salespeople on how to win clients and customers who are already being serviced by your competition.” Buy Now
PANAJI: Goa Governor Mridula Sinha on Friday released a study conducted by her on ‘Practice and Effects of the Civil Code in Goa’, which has concluded that the Goa Civil Code integrates society and creates social solidarity.The Governor has recommended that the governments at the Centre and in all States should take steps to make pre-marital counselling a prerequisite for marriage registration in all communities.She has emphasised the need to create one-nation identity for women as Indian Woman. The report observes that the status of women from different religions in Goa is much better than that of women elsewhere in the country, and one of the important reasons for this is the Common Civil Code in Goa.The Portuguese Civil Code is applicable to all communities in the State, an erstwhile Portuguese colony.She has compiled the findings after several interactions with women from different religions residing in Goa, and the heads of the various religious groups. The study was intended to understand the impact of the Code on the lives of women of diverse communities in Goa and to look for discrepancies, if any. The objective was also to ascertain how the Code has brought in unity and social harmony among women.The report says the basic problem today is the collapse of family values, leading to alienation of youth. In this context, features of the Goa Civil Code, be it the communion of properties, regime of succession or the compulsory registration of marriage, have brought tolerance in the family structure and strengthened family values.The Governor noted that the Code prohibits polygamy, except in certain circumstances, where the first wife is not able to reproduce till the age prescribed therein. Ms. Sinha does not favour even this exception, as it is against gender equality.Under the code, Muslim men can neither practise polygamy nor is the verbal divorce recognised in the State. Secondly, the Muslim Personal Law Application Act, 1937, has not been extended to Goa.Ms. Sinha has lauded the feature that the contract of marriage can’t end in vanity; mutual consent is essential for contract of marriage.A great feature empowering women is in terms of inheritance. Each spouse jointly holds ownership to the assets earned before marriage, and on divorce, each is entitled to half of these assets. The law also allows pre-nuptial agreement under which the parties can define their shares mutually in case of divorce.A married person requires consent of the other spouse while disposing of property. Also, parents cannot disinherit children entirely, and are required to pass on at least half of their property to their children. And, irrespective of the gender, the inherited property has to be shared equally among children.The Governor adopted the methodology of interacting with women from six communities and a group of religious leaders. She also designed a questionnaire to solicit information.The Governor was impressed with the pre-marital counselling practised in Christianity, as it prepares and educates the prospective bride and groom on the rights and responsibilities arising out of a marriage. The need for pre-marital counselling was supported by women of all communities. She has also appreciated the practice in some religions of counselling in cases of divorce, and granting it after due course. The decision, if any, in such cases is ratified by the Family Courts. She also observed that for marriages, the Church facilitates transfer of documents to the registrar once the marriage is solemnised in Church, and therefore the couple visits the registrar’s office only once. Ms. Sinha was of the view that such a practice may be extended to Hindus as well as Muslims.
The Patna High Court on Monday dismissed two PILs challenging the formation of the new government by Nitish Kumar’s JD(U) along with the BJP.After hearing all parties, a division bench comprising Chief Justice Rajendra Menon and Justice A K Upadhyay dismissed the two PILs saying no intervention of the court is required, after floor test in the state Assembly.While one PIL was filed by RJD MLAs Saroj Yadav and Chandan Verma, the second one was filed by Jitendra Kumar, a Samajwadi Party member.On Friday last, the court had adjourned the matter for Monday.The new Nitish Kumar government in which the NDA is a coalition partner won the trust vote on Friday last.
An affluent Jain couple from Madhya Pradesh has adopted monkhood after renouncing property worth an estimated ₹100 crore and leaving their toddler daughter in the care of her grandparents, as they set out on the journey for salvation.While Sumit Rathore (35), a businessman, was ordained in the Shwetambar (white-clad) order of Jainism at a ceremony in Surat on September 23, his wife Anamika (34) embraced monkhood on Monday after submitting an affidavit, as asked by the authorities, stating their three-year-old daughter Ibhya would remain with her maternal grandparents.Sumit and Anamika, who hail from Neemuch in Madhya Pradesh, were granted “deeksha” by Sadhumargi Jain Acharya Ramlal Maharaj.Plea to NHRCHowever, the couple’s journey to monkhood was not without hiccups, especially over the future of Ibhya. A Neemuch-based activist had sought the intervention of the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) to stop the initiation ceremony in the interest of the minor daughter of the couple.Sumit and Anamika were married for four years.
The Odisha Assembly on Monday witnessed repeated adjournments after question hour as members of the ruling BJD and the Opposition Congress and the BJP created pandemonium over the Mahanadi and farmers’ issues.Speaker Pradip Kumar Amat, however, managed to pass the supplementary budget of 39 departments through guillotine amid the din prevailing in the House.After question hour, the BJP members raised the farmers’ issue and stormed into the well of the House demanding loan waiver. They shouted slogans against the BJD government and termed it “anti-farmer” .Pest attack The farmers of the State are badly affected as the kharif crop has been hit by drought, pest attack and unseasonal rain.The BJD members, on the other hand, raised the Mahanadi issue and accused the Centre of being partisan.They alleged that the Centre was supporting the BJP-ruled Chhattisgarh which was constructing projects upstream of the Mahanadi river “illegally”.Odisha has been opposing construction of a number of barrages and dams by Chhattisgarh on the upper reaches of the Mahanadi river, saying it would affect the State’s farmers.The Centre had told the Supreme Court on December 6 that the ongoing dispute between Odisha and Chhattisgarh over the Mahanadi should be sorted out through negotiations between the parties concerned.Sanjay Dasburma of the BJD claimed that the Chhattisgarh government has planned river interlinking to draw more water from the Mahanadi and, in that case, Odisha would soon go dry.Amid the heated exchange of words between members of the two parties, the Speaker adjourned the House till 3 p.m.When the House reassembled, Leader of the Opposition Narasingha Mishra of the Congress sought a ruling from the Speaker on the alleged exploitation of paddy farmers at government mandis.Explanation soughtMr. Mishra said the Agriculture Minister should clarify in the House as to why the government mandis deduct about 5 kg on each 100 kg of paddy being sold by farmers.As the Speaker proceeded with other business, the Congress MLAs rushed to the well and raised anti-government slogans alleging distress sale of paddy by farmers.While the BJP members also joined the Congress MLAs, the treasury bench members again raised the Mahanadi issue creating a ruckus and the Speaker adjourn the House till 4.28 p.m.When the House reassembled, a similar scene was recreated by the Opposition members.However, the Speaker managed to pass the additional expenditure statement of 39 departments through guillotine and adjourned the House till tomorrow.
After failing to ensure the passage of the Uttar Pradesh Control of Organised Crime Bill (UPCOCB) in the Legislative Council, the Uttar Pradesh government will re-introduce it in the State Assembly on March 27.The UPCOC was passed by the Legislative Assembly on December 21, 2017. The Upper House (Council), where the Opposition is in the majority, turned down the legislation on March 13 and returned it to the Assembly on March 14. The proposed legislation, on the lines of Maharashtra Control of Organised Crime Act (MCOCA), seeks to curb organised crime and deal strictly with those trying to foment terror or dislodge the government forcibly or through violent means.The UPCOC Bill, 2017, also seeks to act sternly against those using explosives or firearms or any other violent means or damaging life and property or involved in any anti-national or destructive act.Number gameIn the Upper House, the ruling BJP is in minority unlike in the 403-member Assembly, where it won 325 seats (along with allies). In the 100-member Council, the BJP has just 13 members.The Samajwadi Party has 61 members, the BSP nine, the Congress two, the RLD one and other parties 12. Two seats are vacant.
Saharanpur was tense after Sachin Walia, a Bhim Army member and brother of the group’s local president Kamal Walia, was killed by unidentified assailants near the celebration venue of Maharana Pratap Jayanti on Wednesday. The news of Sachin’s murder led to immediate protest by Dalit groups as May 9 marks the anniversary of the violent caste clashes between Thakurs and Dalits in Saharanpur last year.District Magistrate of Saharanpur P.K. Pandey and Senior Superintendent of Police Babloo Kumar rushed to the spot and ordered a probe. According to the police Sachin was shot by unidentified culprits from a spot which was near to the venue of Maharana Pratap Jayanti. Immeidately after he was shot, he was taken to the hospital where he was declared brought dead. The SSP told the media that the police was probing the matter and would arrest the culprits soon. While the police was tight-lipped about the motive of the murder, Sachin’s family members alleged that he was shot dead due to police’s “relaxed attitude” towards dalits and members of bhim army. Given that the murder happened on the anniversary of the caste clashes in Saharanpur, police has immediately deployed police force in Saharanpur and has asked for more police force from nearby districts. The SSP Mr. Kumar has appealed people not to believe in rumours. The local administration gave permission to Rajput and Thakur outfits to celebrate Maharana Pratap Jayanti celebration on Wednesday. Reacting to the murder, Amnesty International called for immediate probe. Asmita Basu, programmes director, Amnesty International India, said, “The Uttar Pradesh government must investigate whether Sachin Walia was killed in a hate crime. Around this time last year, Dalits in Saharanpur district faced several caste-based attacks whose perpetrators are yet to be punished. Uttar Pradesh authorities must ensure that similar attacks don’t occur again.”
The toll from a dust storm that hit parts of Uttar Pradesh has risen to 38, officials said on Monday.Six people were killed in Kasganj, the worst affected district in the State, an Uttar Pradesh government official said.Also Read “Thirty-eight people were killed and 50 injured in the dust storm that lashed various parts of Uttar Pradesh on May 13-14,” the official said.Five people each were killed in Bareilly and Barabanki districts.Officials said 117 houses were damaged and 13 animals died in the storms. Dust storm lashes Capital, disrupts services
Senior Congress leader Randeep Singh Surjewala on Friday accused Haryana’s ruling BJP government of failing to save the interest of thousands of employees, a day after the Punjab and Haryana High Court quashed the State’s policy of regularising the services of contractual and ad hoc employees. He demanded that the State government immediately pass an ordinance for granting permanent status to the affected employees.Mr. Surjewala alleged that the State government neither put the entire facts before the High Court nor argued the case appropriately and effectively for the contractual and ad hoc employees. Six-month windowThe court, while nullifying the policy, offered a six-month window in which the State government must complete the process of filling up the Group B, C and D posts.The policy had been initiated by the previous Congress government led by Bhupinder Singh Hooda. “The 2014 regularisation policy framed during the Congress regime was not only legally sound but it also took due care of the interests of the ad hoc and contractual employees,” claimed Mr. Surjewala.Due rights“If the BJP government does not give temporary employees their due rights, then Congress would do justice to them all when it comes in power in the State,” he said.
The BJP rank and file will feel the absence of Chief Minister Manohar Parrikar on his birthday on Thursday.Former Panaji MLA Sidharth Kuncolienkar, said, “We all will feel his absence at the celebrations being held in his honour, which includes pooja and prayer at the Mahalaxmi temple followed by a blood donation camp at the State BJP headquarters.” “Manohar bhai will not be there. But we are going to do everything which we otherwise used to do on his birthday,” he said confirming that Mr. Parrikar would not be participating in any of the events. Asked if there would be some informal celebration at Mr. Parrikar’s private residence, Mr. Kuncoliekar said that none had been planned.
Calling the Pulwama terror attack on Indian forces pre-planned, Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) president Sharad Pawar on Friday said that its pattern shows that the precaution that should have been taken at that time was not in place. “This terror attack was orchestrated in a manner in which it breached heavy security and despite the fact that armed vehicles were in the convoy. It proves that the attack was pre-planned,” Mr. Pawar said. He said that after the attack there was shooting from terrorists which means that they were hiding. “This also indicates that cautionary measures were not in place,” Mr. Pawar said.Maharashtra Congress president Ashok Chavan said that in this hour of grief, he wouldn’t prefer to make any critical remarks. “We stand together today. Even though our parties are different, this is an issue of national security and pride. We stand with the government at this hour. It is important that our security forces give a befitting reply to terrorists,” he said.Mumbai Congress president Sanjay Nirupam said that all terror organisations in Pakistan should be destroyed. “Our president Rahul Gandhi has said that we stand with our soldiers and government and the action it takes. The terrorists will have to pay for their sins,” he said.
National Conference vice-president Omar Abdullah and Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) president Mehbooba Mufti on Wednesday held separate protest rallies and sit-ins against the government order restricting civilian traffic on the Baramulla-Udhampur national highway on Sundays and Wednesdays every week till May 31.Leading a protest march and a sit-in at Pantha Chowk near the highway, Mr. Abdullah termed the directive ‘Tughlaqi farmaan’. “There was no need to impose the restrictions along the highway. Kudos to Gen. Malik sahib for calling out the J&K highway closure order a dumb idea. The decisions in J&K today are being driven more by ego than by logic and it is vanity that is stopping this order from being withdrawn,” said the former Chief Minister.Mr. Abdullah also took objection to magistrates stamping the hands of civilians who were granted passes to ply on the highway in south Kashmir.“This is how permission is granted to people in J&K to use their highway. Their hands are being stamped and written on. Should we be flippant and mock the attempt at saving paper? I’m just angry at the degrading, inhuman treatment being meted out to people,” Mr. Abdullah tweeted.‘Bid to suppress people’Former Chief Minister Ms. Mufti, who led a protest rally near the highway on the city outskirts, termed the restriction a bid to “attack the State’s economy and an attempt to suppress people of J&K.”“I appeal to people to drive vehicles and defy the ban. Kashmir is not Israel-Palestine issue. If the government in Delhi wants to turn Kashmir into Israel-Palestine issue, then it should be ready itself for a Palestine-like situation,” she said.Ms. Mufti said her party had approached the court to address the issue.Exempted categoriesMeanwhile, the Governor’s administration has exempted lawyers, students, teachers and government employees from the restrictions. “Medical prescriptions will also be treated as a pass,” said an official.The highway ban was implemented in the wake of attack on a CRPF convoy on February 14 on the highway in Pulwama in which 40 jawans died.
Obese people have a less diverse array of bacteria living in their guts than do thin people—and the same holds true for dogs. In a new study, researchers fed seven beagles unrestricted amounts of food for 6 months, during which each dog gained an average of 4.93 kilograms—about 67% of their initial average weight of 7.37 kilograms. The investigators fed another seven beagles controlled food portions, and, as expected, this group did not gain weight. When the researchers examined the fecal samples collected from both groups after 6 months, they found that the guts of obese beagles contained a smaller diversity of bacteria than those of the other dogs. What’s more, microbes from the phylum Firmicutes were the predominant group in the lean dogs, whereas Gram-negative bacteria called Proteobacteria were prevalent in the obese group, the team reported online this month in the Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. The researchers speculate that an abundance of Proteobacteria may lead to an increase in lipopolysaccharide, a major component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, which has been linked to weight gain in mice. More research is needed to examine what role gut bacteria may play in the development of obesity, however, the authors say.For more on man’s best friend, see the Science News team’s latest coverage of doggy science.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)
Hike nearly 5500 meters up in the Peruvian Andes and you’ll find the Quelccaya Ice Cap. The landscape is stark and seemingly pristine, with barely a shrub eking out a living on the rocks surrounding the tropical glacier. But drill into that ice and you’ll find a dirty history: the record of air pollution in South America. New research on an ice core taken from Quelccaya reveals that humans began polluting the region centuries before the industrial revolution arrived with its steam engines and coal plants. The results suggest that the Anthropocene, a new geological epoch defined by humans’ effect on the planet, began at different times around the world.For as long as people have been releasing pollution into the atmosphere, ice in Earth’s glaciers has been trapping it. The Quelccaya ice core offers a particularly vivid record of atmospheres past, thanks to the tropics’ annual pattern of wet and dry seasons. The wet season brings snow to Quelccaya, and the dry season brings dust. Once everything gets packed down into the glacier, the alternating seasons show up as stripes of “clean and dusty ice,” explains Paolo Gabrielli, an earth scientist at Ohio State University, Columbus. Anything that’s in the air at the time the snow or dust lands will eventually be trapped inside the glacier.That means scientists can use ice cores like the one from Quelccaya to reconstruct what Gabrielli calls pollution histories. For example, trace metals released into the atmosphere by ancient Greek and Roman mining operations have been discovered in ice from Greenland. Gabrielli thought South America’s glaciers might have recorded similar human activities, especially because the continent has a long history of mining and metallurgy.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)People were mining and smelting copper in South America as early as 1400 B.C.E., and the Incas introduced the smelting of silver ore (which often contains lead) in the 15th century C.E., explains François De Vleeschouwer, an environmental geochemist at EcoLab in Toulouse, France, who was not involved in the study. Smelting these metals in open furnaces released particles into the atmosphere, where they became part of the precipitation and dust that eventually landed, among other places, on the Quelccaya Ice Cap. Gabrielli’s team found traces of metals, including copper and lead, dating to the pre-Columbian period in the Quelccaya ice core, supporting similar evidence of Incan and pre-Incan emissions from De Vleeschouwer’s study of peat records in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. The new paper is the first to quantify precolonial air pollution in South America, showing that the emissions levels “are [high] enough to consider the Incas polluters,” De Vleeschouwer says.But it wasn’t until the Spanish colonized South America in the 16th century that air pollution really took off, Gabrielli says. The main culprit was probably the gigantic silver mine in Potosí, Bolivia, which exploited the planet’s largest deposit of the precious metal throughout the colonial period—and released unprecedented levels of lead and other metals into the South American atmosphere. Between 1450 C.E. and 1900 C.E., lead levels in the Quelccaya ice core nearly doubled, and the amount of the metal antimony in the ice increased 3.5 times, Gabrielli and his colleagues report online today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.Air pollution tapered off a bit in the 19th century, when South America was rocked by wars of independence and its economy languished because of lasting damage to infrastructure and capital. But it roared back with a vengeance in the 20th century, as new copper mines opened; coal-burning trains and, later, cars fueled by leaded gasoline were introduced; and novel metals, such as molybdenum, began to be mined in the region. Between 1900 and 1989, the last year included in the Quelccaya ice core, silver levels in the atmosphere nearly tripled, copper and lead levels doubled, and molybdenum levels rose more than twofold. “It would be important to check whether atmospheric pollution of molybdenum persists today, because dust enriched in this element may be toxic to humans,” Gabrielli notes.Although the vast majority of South America’s air pollution was released in the 20th century, Gabrielli and his colleagues believe that colonial mines like Potosí had such a dramatic impact on the environment that they should be considered the beginning of the Anthropocene in the region. That’s 240 years before the industrial revolution began, which suggests that “the timing for the onset of the Anthropocene may differ around the world,” says Alexandre Correia, an atmospheric physicist at the University of São Paulo in Brazil who has studied South American ice cores and was not involved in the current study. But whenever it started, the Anthropocene has left its mark on the present, Gabrielli says. “Today, there are no glaciers on Earth” in which traces of human-produced air pollution cannot be detected.
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